202 Burlington Road
Bedford, MA 01730
Speaker: Dr. Eli Brookner, Raytheon Company (retired)
Date & Time: 6-9 pm on Mondays; Oct. 26, Nov. 2, 9, 16, 23, 30 Dec. 7, 14, 2015 and Jan. 4, 11, 2016 (If needed, Snow/make up days Jan. 25, Feb. 1, 8)
Location: MITRE, 202 Burlington Road, Bedford, MA.
Please Note: Monday, December 14th meeting will be in held in Building M.
Your Registration Includes:
1 Textbook ($159 value)
Reprints ($150 value)
over 800 Vugraphs ($120 value)
Decision (Run/Cancel) Date for this Courses is Oct 16 2015
Payment received by Oct 12
IEEE Members $300
Payment received after Oct 12
IEEE Members $340
Make Checks payable to:
IEEE Boston Section
One Centre Street, Suite 203
Wakefield, MA 01880
The following book plus over ten paper reprints are provided FREE with your registration:
1. “Aspects of Modern Radar”, Dr. Eli Brookner (Editor), Artech House, Hardcover, 432 pages, 1988, List price: $159. The 1st chapter gives the best easy to read introduction to radar. It covers all aspects of radar: transmitters, receiver, antennas, signal processing, tracking, clutter derivation of radar equation in easy terms and definition of dB. The 2nd chapter gives detailed descriptions of different radar systems like: Cobra Dane, Pave Paws, BMEWS, Series 320 3D radar, OTH radars and dome antenna. The book has a catalog giving the detailed parameters for over 200 radars from around the world. The remaining chapters cover AEGIS SPY-1, Hybrid and MMIC circuits, ultra low sidelobe antennas (ULSA), mmw, radar cross section and Doppler weather radars. The material in the book is easy to access and as a result the text serves as a handy reference book.
This course is an updated version of the Radar Technology course given previously. Those who have taken the Radar Technology previously should find it worthwhile taking this revised version. New material includes determination of radar height-range coverage diagram using the powerful SPAWAR’s AREPS program. AREPS provides coverage for arbitrary propagation conditions (ducts [evaporation, surface, or elevated], subrefraction and superrefraction) and terrain conditions based on DTED data. AREPS now accounts for surface roughness scattering and evaluates sea and land clutter backscatter versus range. Attendees will be told how to obtain AREPS FREE. Valued at over $7,000. Also new is coverage of Anomalous Propagation and what to do about it; the latest on solid state devices and transmitters including GaN, SiC, SiGe; Breakthroughs in Radar — $10 T/R module, Digital Beam Forming (DBF), MIMO, Packaging, Disruptive Technology, Metamaterials, Memristors, Graphene, Tubes. Also covered are STAP, AMTI, DPCA, System Temperature.
Updated course is framed around FREE book described above. Also given out free are supplementary notes consisting of copies of >800 vugraphs plus over 15 paper reprints by Dr. Brookner.
For the beginner, basics such as the radar equation, MTI (Moving Target Indicator) and pulse doppler processing, antenna-scanning techniques, pulse compression, CFAR, RAC and SAW devices are explained in simple terms. Dome antenna, CCDs, BBDs, SAW devices, SAW monolithic convolvers, microstrip antennas, ultra-low antenna sidelobes (<-40 dB), stacked beam and phased array systems, (1-D, 2-D, Limited Field of View [LFOV]), Moving Target Detection (MTD). For both the novice and experienced covered are tracking, prediction and smoothing in simple terms (mystery taken out of GH, GHK and Kalman filters); the latest developments and future trend in solid state, tube and digital processing technologies; synthetic aperture radar (SAR); Displaced Phase Center Antenna (DPCA); Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) ; digital beam forming (DBF); Adaptive-Adaptive Array Processing for jammer suppression with orders of magnitude reduction in computation; RECENT AMAZING RADAR BREAKTHROUGHS. These will be explained so that the inexperienced can follow as well. Lecture 1, Oct. 26 FUNDAMENTALS OF Radar: Part 1: Brief history of Radar, Major achievements since WWII: PHASED ARRAYS: Principles explained with COBRA DANE used as example. Near and Far Field Defined, Phased Steering, Time Delay Steering, Subarraying, Array Weighting, Monopulse, Duplexing, Array Thinning, embedded element, COBRA DANE slide tour (6 stories building). Radar equation derived.
Lecture 2, Nov. 2
FUNDAMENTALS OF Radar: Part 2: FREQUENCY TRADEOFFS: Search vs Track, Range and Doppler Ambiguities, Detection in Clutter. Blind Velocity region, range eclipsing, Environmental Factors, Dependence of clutter model on grazing angle and size radar resolution cell discussed, Weibull clutter: Polarization Choice, Detection of Low Flying Low Cross-Section Targets, Antenna Pattern Lobing in Elevation due to multipath, Ground Multipath Elevation Angle Error Problem and ways to cope with it, e.g., use of an even difference pattern Off-Axis Monopulse, Complex Monopulse,Two Frequency Radar Systems: Marconi L- and S-band S631, Signaal/Thales (Holland),Flycatcher X and Ka System; Tube and Solid State OTH Radars
Lecture 3, Nov. 9
FUNDAMENTALS of Radar: Part 3: PROPAGATION: standard, superrefraction, subrefraction, surface-based ducts, evaporation ducts. Determination of radar coverage using new AREPS program. ANTENNA SCANNING SYSTEMS: Fixed Beam System: Wake Measurement Radar; 2-D Radars, 3-D Radars: Stacked Beam: Marconi Martello, Smart-L, SMARTELLO, ARSR-4; 1-D Frequency Scanning: ITT Series 320; 1-D Phased Scanning: TPS-59, GE-592, RAT-31DL; Phased-Frequency Scanners: Raytheon Fire Finder and Plessey AR320; Limited and Hemispherical Scanning (Dome Antenna) related and explained in simple terms.
Lecture 4, Nov. 16
FUNDAMENTALS of Radar: Part 4: ULTRA LOW ANTENNA SIDELOBES (40 dB down or more). MOVING TARGET INDICATORS (MTI): Two-Pulse Canceller, Pulse Doppler Processing; MOVING TARGET DETECTOR (MTD); Optimum Clutter Canceller, STAP, AMTI, DPCA.
Lecture 5, Nov. 23
SIGNAL PROCESSING: Part 1: What is PULSE COMPRESSION? Matched Filters; Chirp Waveform Defined; ANALOG PROCESSING: Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Devices: Reflective Array Compressor (RAC), Delay Lines, Bandpass Filters, Oscillators, Resonators; IMCON Devices; Analog Programmable Monolithic SAW Convolver; BBD/CCD. What are they?
Lecture 6, Nov. 30
SIGNAL PROCESSING: Part 2: DIGITAL PROCESSING: Fast Fourier Transform (FFT); Butterfly, Pipeline and In-Place Computation explained in simple terms; Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) Spectral Estimate; State-of-the-art of A/Ds, FPGAs and Memory; Signal Processor Architectures: Pipeline FFT, Distributed, Systolic; Digital Beam Forming (DBF). Future Trends.
Lecture 7, Dec. 7
SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (SAR): Strip and Spotlight SAR explained in simple terms.
TUBES: Basics given of Magnetron, Cross Field Amplifiers, Klystrons, Traveling Wave Tubes, Gyro Tubes.
TREND TOWARD SOLID STATE PHASED-ARRAY TRANSMITTERS: Discrete All Solid State PAVE PAWS and BMEWS radars; advantages over tube radars; MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuitry; integrated circuitry applied to microwaves components): THAAD, SPY-3, IRIDIUM, XBR, JLENS. Solid State ‘Bottle’ Transmitters: ASR -11/DASR, ASR-23SS, ASDE-X.
Lecture 8, Dec. 14
Breakthroughs and Trends in Phased-Arrays and Radars
Systems: 3, 4, 6 face “Aegis” systems developed by China, Japan, Australia, Netherlands, USA; Patriot now has GaN AESA providing 360o coverage; S/X-band AMDR provides 30 times the sensitivity and number of tracks as SPY-1D(V). Low Cost Packaging: Raytheon funding development of low cost flat panel X-band array using COTS type printed circuit boards (PCBs); Lincoln-Lab./MA-COM developing low cost S-band flat panel array using PCBs, overlapped subarrays and a T/R switch instead of a circulator; Extreme MMIC: 4 T/R modules on single chip at X-band costing ~$10 per T/R module ; full phased array on wafer at 110 GHz; on-chip built-in-self-test (BIST); Digital Beam Forming (DBF): Israel, Thales and Australia AESAs have an A/D for every element channel; Raytheon developing mixer-less direct RF A/D having >400 MHz instantaneous bandwidth, reconfigurable between S and X-band; Lincoln Lab increases spurious free dynamic range of receiver plus A/D by 40 dB; Radio Astronomers looking at using arrays with DBF. Materials: GaN can now put 5X to 10X the power of GaAs in same footprint, 38% less costly, 100 million hr MTBF; SiGe for backend, GaN for front end of T/R module. Metamaterials: Material custom made (not found in nature): electronically steered antenna at 20 and 30 GHz demonstrated (with goal of $1K per antenna) remains to prove low cost and reliability); 2-20GHz stealthing by absorption simulated using <1 mm coating; target made invisible over 50% bandwidth at L-band; Focus 6X beyond diffraction limit at 0.38 μm; 40X diffraction limit, λ/80, at 375 MHz; In cell phones provides antennas 5X smaller (1/10th λ) having 700 MHz-2.7 GHz bandwidth; Provides isolation between antennas having 2.5 cm separation equivalent to 1m separation; used for phased array WAIM; n-doped graphene has negative index of refraction, first such material found in nature. Very Low Cost Systems: Valeo Raytheon (now Valeo Radar) developed low cost, $100s, car 25 GHz 7 beam phased array radar; about 2 million sold already, more than all the radars ever built up to a very few years ago; Commercial ultra low cost 77 GHz Roach radar on 72mm2 chip with >8 bits 1 GS/s A/D and 16 element array; Low cost 240GHz 4.2×3.2×0.15 cm3 5 gm radar for bird inspired robots and crawler robots, Frequency scans 2ox8o beam ±25o; DARPA has goal to build 28,000 element 94 GHz array costing $1/element, 50W total RF peak power. SAR/ISAR: Principal Components of matrix formed from prominent scatterers track history used to determine target unknown motion and thus compensate for it to provide focused ISAR image. Technology and Algorithms: Lincoln Lab increases spurious free dynamic range of receiver plus A/D by 40 dB; MEMS: reliability reaches 300 billion cycles without failure; Has potential to reduce the T/R module count in an array by a factor of 2 to 4; Provides microwave filters like 200 MHz wide tuneable from 8-12 GHz; MEMS Piezoelectric Material = piezoMEMS: Enables flying insect robots; Printed Electronics: Low cost printing of RF and digital circuits using metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes, 2D MoS2 ink and 1.6 diodes GHz (goal 2.4 GHz) made with Si and NbSi2 particles,; Electrical and Optical Signals on Same Chip: Electricity and light can be simultaneously transmitted over a silver nanowire combined with single layer 2D MoS2, could be a step towards transporting on computer chips digital information at the speed of light; COSMOS: DARPA revolutionary program: Allow integration of III-V, CMOS and opto-electronics on one chip without bonded wires leading to higher performance, lower power, smaller size, components; MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output): Where it makes sense; contrary to what is claimed MIMO array radars do not provide 1, 2 or 3 orders of magnitude better resolution and accuracy than conventional array radars; MIMO does not provide better barrage-noise-jammer, repeater-jammer or hot-clutter rejection than conventional array radars; Graphene and Carbon Nanotube (CNT): Potential for Terahertz transistor clock speeds, manufacture on CMOS demo’d, could allow Moore’s law to march forward using present day manufacturing techniques; potential for non-volatile memory, flexible displays and camouflage clothing, self-cooling, IBM producing 200 mm wafers with RF devices; Electron spin: For memory; Atomic Memory: 12 iron atoms for 1 bit of memory; could provide hard drive with 100X density; Revolutionary 3-D Micromachining: integrated circuitry for microwave components, like 16 element Ka-band array with Butler beamformer on 13X2 cm2 chip; Superconductivity: We may still achieve superconductivity at room temperature; Superconductivity recently obtained for first time with iron compounds; DARPA UHPC (Ubiquitous High Performance Computing) Program): Goal: Reduce signal processing power consumption by factor of 75; Biodegradable Array of Transistors or LEDs: Imbedded for detecting cancer or low glucose; can then dispense chemotherapy or insulin; New Symmetry Breaking Theory: Could allow in future placing small low frequency antennas on a chip; Quantum Radar: See stealth targets; New polarizations: OAMs, (Orbital Angular Momentum) unlimited data rate over finite band using new polarizations??
Lecture 9, Jan. 4
TRACKING, PREDICTION AND SMOOTHING: Simple Algebra and Physical explanation. Mystery taken out of αβ (GH) Filter; Errors of; Fading Memory; Benedict-Bordner; Example Designs; Stability; Tracking Initiation; αβγ (GHK) Filter; Kalman Filter Explained in simple physical terms; Why Kalman Filter?; Relationship to GH and GHK Filters; Matrix Notation; Simple Derivation.
Lecture 10, Jan. 11
HOW TO LOOK LIKE A GENIUS IN DETECTION WITHOUT REALLY TRYING: Simple procedure for determining detection using Meyer Plots, MATLAB, Excel and MATHCAD is presented. No detailed mathematics used, emphasis on physical understanding of target models (non-fluctuating, Marcum, Swerling, Weinstock, Chi-Square, Rayleigh, Lognormal, Rice and YGIAGAM) and performance results. Also covered are beam shape, CFAR, mismatch loss