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Inexpensive microwave components, micro-computing, and data acquisition have made possible widespread adaptation of small and short-range radar sensors. Initially, small radar sensors were continuous wave (CW) Doppler units for use as proximity fuses during the Second World War. These sensors were mounted on the top of an anti-aircraft shell, detonating the shell when it approached the body of an aircraft. Shortly after the war CW radar sensors found use in the law-enforcement application of measuring the speed of automobiles. During the late 1950’s automotive radar sensors were developed but proved too costly. With the invention of the Gunn oscillator the small Doppler radar found use as a motion sensor for opening automatic doors. During the evolution of low-observable aircraft, short-range rail synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging systems were developed to measure radar cross section (RCS). Today, low-cost radar sensors are used in automatic cruise control, collision mitigation braking, blind spot detection, and as back-up aids in automobiles. Lower frequency portable and mobile sensors can penetrate concrete walls providing a sensing capability for search and rescue missions. Compact SAR sensors are flown on unmanned air vehicles providing on-demand reconnaissance. Small radar sensors are utilized in autonomous vehicles (both air and ground) to sense the environment, detect hazards, attempt to classify objects, and enable autonomous decision-making.
These radar systems are different in theory and significantly different in operation than conventional radar. This is due to the short-range geometry of target scenes. Short ranges require wide bandwidths to achieve useful range resolution and simultaneous transmit and receive because of practical hardware limitations, resulting in unusual radar architectures. These target scenes are full of clutter that requires coherent processing and detection algorithms. Furthermore, short-range radar systems operate in the near field, requiring special treatment of beamforming and imaging. To increase accuracy in automotive and unmanned vehicle applications data is often fused with other sensors to reduce false alarm rates.
The application of small radar sensors is an evolving topic and therefore requires special treatment. The ubiquitous use of low-cost Doppler radar for use in law enforcement and motion sensing will be discussed. Two chapters will focus on the topics of automotive radar and autonomous vehicles, covering topics from physical design into vehicles to navigation and sensor fusion. Finally, a chapter on through-wall imaging will be presented.
Gregory L. Charvat is author of Small and Short-Range Radar Systems, Co-Founder of Butterfly Network Inc., and advisor to the Camera Culture Group at MIT Media Lab. Greg grew up in the metro Detroit area, where, at a young age he would take apart old television sets and radios. Greg eventually started making amateur radio equipment in high school, a radio telescope, and developed numerous radar systems while in college. He earned a PhD in electrical engineering in 2007, MSEE in 2003, and BSEE in 2002 from Michigan State University. He was a technical staff member at MIT Lincoln Laboratory from September 2007 to November 2011 and has taught short radar courses at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where his ‘Build a Small Radar Sensor...’ course was the top-ranked MIT Professional Ed. course in 2011.
Dr. Charvat authored or co-authored numerous journals, proceedings, magazine articles, and seminars on various topics including; applied electromagnetics, synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and phased array radar systems, RF and analog design. He has developed 6 rail SAR imaging sensors, 2 MIMO phased array radar systems, 2 impulse radar systems, holds a patent on a harmonic radar remote sensing system, has developed many other radar sensors, and designed his own amateur radio station. For fun Greg develops vacuum tube audio equipment, restores antique radios, watches, clocks, likes to go Lindy-hop dancing, and sails on the Long Island Sound. He won best 2010 paper at the MSS Tri-Services Radar Symposium for his work on through wall radar. Press on this work can be found on the front page of mit.edu news, in Slashdot, Popular Science blog, MIT CSAIL news, ABC news, CNN blog, Financial Times, Popular Mechanics Blog, PC Magazine, Fox News Boston, BBC News, Wired UK, Discovery News, R & D Magazine, MSNBC online, MIT Alumni News, The State News, Wall Street Journal, Make Magazine blog, IEEE Spectrum Magazine , QST Magazine, and others.
Greg is a Senior Member of the IEEE. He served on both the 2010 and 2013 IEEE Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology steering committees, on the steering committee for the CMU 2012 Next Generation Medical Imaging Workshop, served as chair of the IEEE AP-S Boston Chapter from 2010-2011, and IEEE Boston Section Member at Large in 2012. For more information please visit: www.glcharvat.com
The meeting will be held at the Lincoln Lab Auditorium, 244 Wood Street., Lexington, MA at 4:00 PM. Refreshments will be served at 3:30 PM. Registration is in the main lobby. Foreign national visitors to Lincoln Lab require visit requests. Please pre-register by e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org and indicate your citizenship. Please use the Wood Street Gate. For directions go to http://www.ll.mit.edu/. For other information, contact Len Long, Chairman, at (781)894-3943, or email@example.com. or Steve Teahan at firstname.lastname@example.org. If you would like to be on the Life Members database so we can inform you of special programs including field trips plus added events like a global warming debate, please send us an e-mail with your contact information. This meeting is cosponsored by the IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society (AESS)."
It is important to understand how the anticipated worldwide growth in the aviation system translates into potential increases in aircraft-related fuel burn and Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG). The industry has established goals of: (1) achieving carbon-neutral growth relative to 2020; and (2) a 2 percent per annum improvement in fuel efficiency. There are a number of levers available to the industry for achieving these goals They include: (1) the introduction of more environmentally efficient aircraft technology (e.g., Boeing’s 787 and Airbus’ NEO, or new engine options on their A319, A320 and A321 aircraft); and (2) improvements in Communication, Navigation Systems and Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) technologies (e.g., those associated with the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in the U.S., and the Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) programme in Europe. Other considerations include the potential for drop-in alternative aviation fuels and market-based measures.
As Director of the Environmental and Energy Systems Technical Center at the Volpe Center, Gregg Fleming has over 25 years of experience in all aspects of transportation-related acoustics, air quality, and climate issues. He has guided the technical work of numerous, multi-faceted teams on projects supporting all levels of Government, Industry, and Academia, including the International Civil Aviation Organization, the Federal Aviation Administration, the Federal Highway Administration, the National Park Service, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Academy of Sciences.
Mr. Fleming is responsible for the design, development, and deployment of internationally-recognized environmental analysis tools, including the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), the FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM), FAA's System for assessing Aviation's Global Emissions (SAGE), and FHWA's Traffic Noise Model (TNM). The FAA tools are used for establishing national and international policies pertaining to aviation and the environment, including noise and environmental stringencies and domestic analyses in support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). FHWA's TNM is used for designing highway noise barriers and informing the federal distribution of noise mitigation funds related to highway noise barrier construction. He is also responsible for evaluating, establishing, and maintaining standardized procedures for national and international aircraft noise certification. Most recently, he has been working with industry and academia on projects related to alternative fuels, with particular focus on approaches to achieving carbon-neutral growth.
Under Mr. Fleming's direction the Environmental and Energy Systems Technical Center maintains an extensive laboratory of environmental measurement and monitoring instrumentation, including a quick-response capability to support all aspects of transportation-related environmental measurements.
Mr. Fleming currently co-chairs the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Modeling and Databases Task Force and represents the Federal Aviation Administration at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. He is Chairman Emeritus of the Transportation Research Board's Committee for Transportation Related Noise and Vibration and is active in the Society of Automotive Engineers, as well as numerous other technical organizations.
Mr. Fleming has co-authored numerous peer-reviewed journal articles and has participated substantially in the development of national and international standards on technical issues pertaining to acoustics, air quality, and climate change.
The meeting will be held at the Lincoln Lab Auditorium, 244 Wood Street., Lexington, MA at 4:00 PM. Refreshments will be served at 3:30 PM. Registration is in the main lobby. Foreign national visitors to Lincoln Lab require visit requests. Please pre-register by e-mail to email@example.com and indicate your citizenship. Please use the Wood Street Gate. For directions go to http://www.ll.mit.edu/
For other information, contact Len Long, Chairman, at (781)894-3943, or firstname.lastname@example.org